Lithium batteries came to the fore in the 1970s when they superseded lead acid, though not in cars. However, litio is getting scarce. The price has risen dramatically recently. People require storage devices: demand is rising.
When in use H2O is reproduced with oxygen from the air; thus power is generated. Protons are moved to achieve this. Another type of cell has been around since the 1930s, the vanadium redox. Despite a lot of investment this has not taken off.
Countries such as the UK have funded new work to find solid state battery technology. Sodium, glass, ceramics and magnesium are being examined as potential candidates. It appears that new methods will suit particular market sectors so segmentation will occur.